Principle of operation of the diesel engine

Power supply system of the diesel engine

1. The fuel filter – not to mix connection. The direction of section is marked by shooters
2. Ring
3. Adjusting valve
4. The pipeline of the return supply of fuel (to the fuel tank)
5. Lock bracket
6. The fuel supply pipeline (from the fuel tank)
7. Water discharge screw
8. Bolt, 25 N · m.
9. The hollow screw, 25 N · m – the hollow screw of the pipeline of the return supply of fuel is marked with "OOT"
10. Switch of draft, 40 N · m
11. Fuel Pump of High Pressure (FPHP)
12. Nozzle, 70 N · m
13. Heat insulator
14. Pipeline, 25 N · m
15. A bolt, 15 N · m – at depressurization to tighten the moment no more than 25 N · m
16. Connecting branch pipe
17. Clamp
18. Shock-absorber
19. Holder
20. Console
21. TNVD gear wheel
22. Nut, 45 N · m

In the diesel engine in cylinders, at the movement of the piston down, clean air is soaked up and sharply contracts. At the same time temperature in cylinders rises higher than temperature of ignition of diesel fuel. If the piston is before VMT, then in heated to temperature of 700-900 °C diesel fuel which ignites spontaneously so spark plugs are not required is injected.

At the cold engine only compression of temperature of ignition not to reach. In this case it is necessary to warm up the engine. For this purpose in the vortex camera there is a heat candle which warms up the combustion chamber. The control unit of time of heat of a candle of heat are provided with current both in time, and after start of the engine. Besides, the diesel engine has the accelerator of cold start which before start is operated a throttle which button is on a guard of devices. As a result of a pulling of the accelerator of cold start the plunger of the distributor of injection of the fuel pump of high pressure (FPHP) is rearranged approximately on 2,5 ° earlier. At the same time fuel is injected into the heated air too earlier and the cold engine is started quicker. As soon as the engine reaches working temperature, the rope of the accelerator of cold start needs to be returned to a starting position, having drowned up to the end the button on a guard of devices.

TNVD fuel gets directly from the fuel tank. In TNVD fuel, before injection, compresses to 130–160 bars, then moves in engine cylinders as their work. At the same time the TNVD regulator measures fuel depending on position of the accelerator pedal. Through nozzles diesel fuel is at a given time injected in a forkamer of the corresponding cylinder. Thanks to a form forkamer or the vortex camera, the arriving air receives a certain turbulence in which fuel optimum mixes up with air at compression.

Before fuel comes to TNVD, it passes through the fuel filter in which it is cleared of pollution and water. Therefore it is very important timely, according to the ordered service, to clean or replace the filter.

TNVD does not demand leaving. All moving parts of the pump are greased with diesel fuel. TNVD – is put in action from the crankshaft by a gear belt.

As the diesel engine is the engine with spontaneous ignition of the gas mixture which is not demanding system of ignition with the ignition distributor, it has the magnetic valve. At switching off of ignition giving of tension to the magnetic valve is interrupted and the valve blocks the fuel channel. Fuel interruption in supply is provided to these before the lock of a wheel is closed. At start of the engine to the magnetic valve, at inclusion of a starter, tension moves, and it opens the fuel channel.